#include
#include "ssh.h"
#include "sshkeygen.h"
#include "mpint.h"
#include "mpunsafe.h"
#include "tree234.h"
typedef struct PocklePrimeRecord PocklePrimeRecord;
struct Pockle {
tree234 *tree;
PocklePrimeRecord **list;
size_t nlist, listsize;
};
struct PocklePrimeRecord {
mp_int *prime;
PocklePrimeRecord **factors;
size_t nfactors;
mp_int *witness;
size_t index; /* index in pockle->list */
};
static int ppr_cmp(void *av, void *bv)
{
PocklePrimeRecord *a = (PocklePrimeRecord *)av;
PocklePrimeRecord *b = (PocklePrimeRecord *)bv;
return mp_cmp_hs(a->prime, b->prime) - mp_cmp_hs(b->prime, a->prime);
}
static int ppr_find(void *av, void *bv)
{
mp_int *a = (mp_int *)av;
PocklePrimeRecord *b = (PocklePrimeRecord *)bv;
return mp_cmp_hs(a, b->prime) - mp_cmp_hs(b->prime, a);
}
Pockle *pockle_new(void)
{
Pockle *pockle = snew(Pockle);
pockle->tree = newtree234(ppr_cmp);
pockle->list = NULL;
pockle->nlist = pockle->listsize = 0;
return pockle;
}
void pockle_free(Pockle *pockle)
{
pockle_release(pockle, 0);
assert(count234(pockle->tree) == 0);
freetree234(pockle->tree);
sfree(pockle->list);
sfree(pockle);
}
static PockleStatus pockle_insert(Pockle *pockle, mp_int *p, mp_int **factors,
size_t nfactors, mp_int *w)
{
PocklePrimeRecord *pr = snew(PocklePrimeRecord);
pr->prime = mp_copy(p);
PocklePrimeRecord *found = add234(pockle->tree, pr);
if (pr != found) {
/* it was already in there */
mp_free(pr->prime);
sfree(pr);
return POCKLE_OK;
}
if (w) {
pr->factors = snewn(nfactors, PocklePrimeRecord *);
for (size_t i = 0; i < nfactors; i++) {
pr->factors[i] = find234(pockle->tree, factors[i], ppr_find);
assert(pr->factors[i]);
}
pr->nfactors = nfactors;
pr->witness = mp_copy(w);
} else {
pr->factors = NULL;
pr->nfactors = 0;
pr->witness = NULL;
}
pr->index = pockle->nlist;
sgrowarray(pockle->list, pockle->listsize, pockle->nlist);
pockle->list[pockle->nlist++] = pr;
return POCKLE_OK;
}
size_t pockle_mark(Pockle *pockle)
{
return pockle->nlist;
}
void pockle_release(Pockle *pockle, size_t mark)
{
while (pockle->nlist > mark) {
PocklePrimeRecord *pr = pockle->list[--pockle->nlist];
del234(pockle->tree, pr);
mp_free(pr->prime);
if (pr->witness)
mp_free(pr->witness);
sfree(pr->factors);
sfree(pr);
}
}
PockleStatus pockle_add_small_prime(Pockle *pockle, mp_int *p)
{
if (mp_hs_integer(p, (1ULL << 32)))
return POCKLE_SMALL_PRIME_NOT_SMALL;
uint32_t val = mp_get_integer(p);
if (val < 2)
return POCKLE_PRIME_SMALLER_THAN_2;
init_smallprimes();
for (size_t i = 0; i < NSMALLPRIMES; i++) {
if (val == smallprimes[i])
break; /* success */
if (val % smallprimes[i] == 0)
return POCKLE_SMALL_PRIME_NOT_PRIME;
}
return pockle_insert(pockle, p, NULL, 0, NULL);
}
PockleStatus pockle_add_prime(Pockle *pockle, mp_int *p,
mp_int **factors, size_t nfactors,
mp_int *witness)
{
MontyContext *mc = NULL;
mp_int *x = NULL, *f = NULL, *w = NULL;
PockleStatus status;
/*
* We're going to try to verify that p is prime by using
* Pocklington's theorem. The idea is that we're given w such that
* w^{p-1} == 1 (mod p) (1)
* and for a collection of primes q | p-1,
* w^{(p-1)/q} - 1 is coprime to p. (2)
*
* Suppose r is a prime factor of p itself. Consider the
* multiplicative order of w mod r. By (1), r | w^{p-1}-1. But by
* (2), r does not divide w^{(p-1)/q}-1. So the order of w mod r
* is a factor of p-1, but not a factor of (p-1)/q. Hence, the
* largest power of q that divides p-1 must also divide ord w.
*
* Repeating this reasoning for all q, we find that the product of
* all the q (which we'll denote f) must divide ord w, which in
* turn divides r-1. So f | r-1 for any r | p.
*
* In particular, this means f < r. That is, all primes r | p are
* bigger than f. So if f > sqrt(p), then we've shown p is prime,
* because otherwise it would have to be the product of at least
* two factors bigger than its own square root.
*
* With an extra check, we can also show p to be prime even if
* we're only given enough factors to make f > cbrt(p). See below
* for that part, when we come to it.
*/
/*
* Start by checking p > 1. It certainly can't be prime otherwise!
* (And since we're going to prove it prime by showing all its
* prime factors are large, we do also have to know it _has_ at
* least one prime factor for that to tell us anything.)
*/
if (!mp_hs_integer(p, 2))
return POCKLE_PRIME_SMALLER_THAN_2;
/*
* Check that all the factors we've been given really are primes
* (in the sense that we already had them in our index). Make the
* product f, and check it really does divide p-1.
*/
x = mp_copy(p);
mp_sub_integer_into(x, x, 1);
f = mp_from_integer(1);
for (size_t i = 0; i < nfactors; i++) {
mp_int *q = factors[i];
if (!find234(pockle->tree, q, ppr_find)) {
status = POCKLE_FACTOR_NOT_KNOWN_PRIME;
goto out;
}
mp_int *quotient = mp_new(mp_max_bits(x));
mp_int *residue = mp_new(mp_max_bits(q));
mp_divmod_into(x, q, quotient, residue);
unsigned exact = mp_eq_integer(residue, 0);
mp_free(residue);
mp_free(x);
x = quotient;
if (!exact) {
status = POCKLE_FACTOR_NOT_A_FACTOR;
goto out;
}
mp_int *tmp = f;
f = mp_unsafe_shrink(mp_mul(tmp, q));
mp_free(tmp);
}
/*
* Check that f > cbrt(p).
*/
mp_int *f2 = mp_mul(f, f);
mp_int *f3 = mp_mul(f2, f);
bool too_big = mp_cmp_hs(p, f3);
mp_free(f3);
mp_free(f2);
if (too_big) {
status = POCKLE_PRODUCT_OF_FACTORS_TOO_SMALL;
goto out;
}
/*
* Now do the extra check that allows us to get away with only
* having f > cbrt(p) instead of f > sqrt(p).
*
* If we can show that f | r-1 for any r | p, then we've ruled out
* p being a product of _more_ than two primes (because then it
* would be the product of at least three things bigger than its
* own cube root). But we still have to rule out it being a
* product of exactly two.
*
* Suppose for the sake of contradiction that p is the product of
* two prime factors. We know both of those factors would have to
* be congruent to 1 mod f. So we'd have to have
*
* p = (uf+1)(vf+1) = (uv)f^2 + (u+v)f + 1 (3)
*
* We can't have uv >= f, or else that expression would come to at
* least f^3, i.e. it would exceed p. So uv < f. Hence, u,v < f as
* well.
*
* Can we have u+v >= f? If we did, then we could write v >= f-u,
* and hence f > uv >= u(f-u). That can be rearranged to show that
* u^2 > (u-1)f; decrementing the LHS makes the inequality no
* longer necessarily strict, so we have u^2-1 >= (u-1)f, and
* dividing off u-1 gives u+1 >= f. But we know u < f, so the only
* way this could happen would be if u=f-1, which makes v=1. But
* _then_ (3) gives us p = (f-1)f^2 + f^2 + 1 = f^3+1. But that
* can't be true if f^3 > p. So we can't have u+v >= f either, by
* contradiction.
*
* After all that, what have we shown? We've shown that we can
* write p = (uv)f^2 + (u+v)f + 1, with both uv and u+v strictly
* less than f. In other words, if you write down p in base f, it
* has exactly three digits, and they are uv, u+v and 1.
*
* But that means we can _find_ u and v: we know p and f, so we
* can just extract those digits of p's base-f representation.
* Once we've done so, they give the sum and product of the
* potential u,v. And given the sum and product of two numbers,
* you can make a quadratic which has those numbers as roots.
*
* We don't actually have to _solve_ the quadratic: all we have to
* do is check if its discriminant is a perfect square. If not,
* we'll know that no integers u,v can match this description.
*/
{
/* We already have x = (p-1)/f. So we just need to write x in
* the form aF + b, and then we have a=uv and b=u+v. */
mp_int *a = mp_new(mp_max_bits(x));
mp_int *b = mp_new(mp_max_bits(f));
mp_divmod_into(x, f, a, b);
assert(!mp_cmp_hs(a, f));
assert(!mp_cmp_hs(b, f));
/* If a=0, then that means p < f^2, so we don't need to do
* this check at all: the straightforward Pocklington theorem
* is all we need. */
if (!mp_eq_integer(a, 0)) {
unsigned perfect_square = 0;
mp_int *bsq = mp_mul(b, b);
mp_lshift_fixed_into(a, a, 2);
if (mp_cmp_hs(bsq, a)) {
/* b^2-4a is non-negative, so it might be a square.
* Check it. */
mp_int *discriminant = mp_sub(bsq, a);
mp_int *remainder = mp_new(mp_max_bits(discriminant));
mp_int *root = mp_nthroot(discriminant, 2, remainder);
perfect_square = mp_eq_integer(remainder, 0);
mp_free(discriminant);
mp_free(root);
mp_free(remainder);
}
mp_free(bsq);
if (perfect_square) {
mp_free(b);
mp_free(a);
status = POCKLE_DISCRIMINANT_IS_SQUARE;
goto out;
}
}
mp_free(b);
mp_free(a);
}
/*
* Now we've done all the checks that are cheaper than a modpow,
* so we've ruled out as many things as possible before having to
* do any hard work. But there's nothing for it now: make a
* MontyContext.
*/
mc = monty_new(p);
w = monty_import(mc, witness);
/*
* The initial Fermat check: is w^{p-1} itself congruent to 1 mod
* p?
*/
{
mp_int *pm1 = mp_copy(p);
mp_sub_integer_into(pm1, pm1, 1);
mp_int *power = monty_pow(mc, w, pm1);
unsigned fermat_pass = mp_cmp_eq(power, monty_identity(mc));
mp_free(power);
mp_free(pm1);
if (!fermat_pass) {
status = POCKLE_FERMAT_TEST_FAILED;
goto out;
}
}
/*
* And now, for each factor q, is w^{(p-1)/q}-1 coprime to p?
*/
for (size_t i = 0; i < nfactors; i++) {
mp_int *q = factors[i];
mp_int *exponent = mp_unsafe_shrink(mp_div(p, q));
mp_int *power = monty_pow(mc, w, exponent);
mp_int *power_extracted = monty_export(mc, power);
mp_sub_integer_into(power_extracted, power_extracted, 1);
unsigned coprime = mp_coprime(power_extracted, p);
if (!coprime) {
/*
* If w^{(p-1)/q}-1 is not coprime to p, the test has
* failed. But it makes a difference why. If the power of
* w turned out to be 1, so that we took gcd(1-1,p) =
* gcd(0,p) = p, that's like an inconclusive Fermat or M-R
* test: it might just mean you picked a witness integer
* that wasn't a primitive root. But if the power is any
* _other_ value mod p that is not coprime to p, it means
* we've detected that the number is *actually not prime*!
*/
if (mp_eq_integer(power_extracted, 0))
status = POCKLE_WITNESS_POWER_IS_1;
else
status = POCKLE_WITNESS_POWER_NOT_COPRIME;
}
mp_free(exponent);
mp_free(power);
mp_free(power_extracted);
if (!coprime)
goto out; /* with the status we set up above */
}
/*
* Success! p is prime. Insert it into our tree234 of known
* primes, so that future calls to this function can cite it in
* evidence of larger numbers' primality.
*/
status = pockle_insert(pockle, p, factors, nfactors, witness);
out:
if (x)
mp_free(x);
if (f)
mp_free(f);
if (w)
mp_free(w);
if (mc)
monty_free(mc);
return status;
}
static void mp_write_decimal(strbuf *sb, mp_int *x)
{
char *s = mp_get_decimal(x);
ptrlen pl = ptrlen_from_asciz(s);
put_datapl(sb, pl);
smemclr(s, pl.len);
sfree(s);
}
strbuf *pockle_mpu(Pockle *pockle, mp_int *p)
{
strbuf *sb = strbuf_new_nm();
PocklePrimeRecord *pr = find234(pockle->tree, p, ppr_find);
assert(pr);
bool *needed = snewn(pockle->nlist, bool);
memset(needed, 0, pockle->nlist * sizeof(bool));
needed[pr->index] = true;
strbuf_catf(sb, "[MPU - Primality Certificate]\nVersion 1.0\nBase 10\n\n"
"Proof for:\nN ");
mp_write_decimal(sb, p);
strbuf_catf(sb, "\n");
for (size_t index = pockle->nlist; index-- > 0 ;) {
if (!needed[index])
continue;
pr = pockle->list[index];
if (mp_get_nbits(pr->prime) <= 64) {
strbuf_catf(sb, "\nType Small\nN ");
mp_write_decimal(sb, pr->prime);
strbuf_catf(sb, "\n");
} else {
assert(pr->witness);
strbuf_catf(sb, "\nType BLS5\nN ");
mp_write_decimal(sb, pr->prime);
strbuf_catf(sb, "\n");
for (size_t i = 0; i < pr->nfactors; i++) {
strbuf_catf(sb, "Q[%"SIZEu"] ", i+1);
mp_write_decimal(sb, pr->factors[i]->prime);
assert(pr->factors[i]->index < index);
needed[pr->factors[i]->index] = true;
strbuf_catf(sb, "\n");
}
for (size_t i = 0; i < pr->nfactors + 1; i++) {
strbuf_catf(sb, "A[%"SIZEu"] ", i);
mp_write_decimal(sb, pr->witness);
strbuf_catf(sb, "\n");
}
strbuf_catf(sb, "----\n");
}
}
sfree(needed);
return sb;
}